How Infrastructure Reform Can Prioritize Ocean Local weather Motion

Introduction and abstract

Now’s the time to spend money on america’ coastal communities and ocean. Traditionally, the ocean has been central to the U.S. conception of infrastructure; early cities had been in-built naturally sheltered bays or on the banks of tidal rivers to supply protected harbors for ships. At the moment, ocean-based local weather options have the potential to supply as much as one-fifth of the reductions in greenhouse fuel (GHG) emissions wanted globally to restrict the world’s temperature rise to 1.5 levels Celsius, which scientists say is important with the intention to decrease the dangers related to local weather change.

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Since that point, sewage outflow from cities and cities; invasive species transported by ballast water; and air pollution from industrial and navy actions have completely altered coastal ecosystems. Breakwaters, jetties, seawalls, and dredging grew to become ubiquitous options of the American shoreline, facilitating commerce, transportation, emergency response, and play. Furthermore, the intense climate and sea stage rise linked to local weather change will stress these delicate ecosystems even additional, whereas additionally damaging the essential infrastructure that helps communities and the financial system. Transportation, consuming water, and flood-control methods, amongst others, are all in danger.

The American Jobs Plan provides a once-in-a-century alternative to create hundreds of thousands of latest, well-paying union jobs, revitalize the nation’s infrastructure, and construct a clear vitality future. President Joe Biden’s imaginative and prescient consists of $2.Three trillion in direct federal spending and a set of formidable clear vitality tax incentives that may add one other $400 billion. This could be the most important jobs package deal since World Battle II, and if carried out proper, it may dramatically shift the trajectory of world warming, placing america on the trail to a 100 % clear future by midcentury.

A complete infrastructure package deal that totally incorporates ocean local weather options would advance the Biden administration’s want to prioritize racial justice, inclusive financial restoration, and sustainable development that achieves net-zero carbon emissions by midcentury. Such a package deal ought to:

  1. Scale back emissions and improve resilience: With acceptable investments in conservation, restoration, and infrastructure, oceans have the potential to attain one-fifth of the reductions in GHG emissions essential to restrict the world’s temperature rise to 1.5 levels Celsius. To attain this vital discount, the invoice ought to prioritize the restoration of coastal habitats that retailer carbon and profit biodiversity and fisheries; create tens of hundreds of jobs in coastal communities; and help pure infrastructure that protects coastal communities from rising sea ranges and storms. Coastal investments will embody a wise mixture of pure, nature-based, and conventional infrastructure services.
  2. Generate financial prosperity: The U.S. ocean financial system, or blue financial system, accounted for greater than $129 billion in wages and $304 billion in items and companies in 2016—the latest yr for which knowledge can be found. In 2018, marine cargo alone accounted for $5.four trillion in U.S. financial exercise, which is 26 % of the nation’s gross home product. Ocean local weather infrastructure investments in offshore wind and nature-based options ought to safe the nation’s long-term prosperity by paying honest wages, offering good advantages and a voice on the job, and providing American employees from all walks of life a pathway to the center class.
  3. Advance inclusive and equitable improvement: This identical emphasis on development and demand for ocean assets is already straining front-line communities—creating renewed alternatives for funding by means of offshore wind on the one hand and paving the way in which for dislocation on the opposite. Coastal infrastructure improvement and regulation should heart communities traditionally missed within the federal infrastructure coverage course of and denied entry to ocean and coastal assets.

This report proposes agency-by-agency infrastructure and transportation insurance policies to immediately enhance ocean well being and mitigate the impacts of additional improvement on the ocean and coastal surroundings.

Scale back emissions and improve resilience

The infrastructure investments on this part—cleansing up the maritime transportation system and ports, defending the Arctic, and investing in coastal ecosystems—would immediately scale back GHG emissions and improve the ocean’s pure potential to retailer carbon. Taken collectively, these actions can mitigate future local weather change and scale back the quantity of carbon already current within the ambiance in addition to create jobs and defend coastal communities.

The marine transportation system

The ocean has absorbed greater than 90 % of the surplus warmth from local weather change, however transportation throughout its floor—on which international commerce and plenty of industries rely—is among the largest contributors to international GHG emissions yearly. Inside the U.S. Division of Transportation (DOT), the Maritime Administration (MARAD) promotes the U.S. maritime business, funds grants for ports, backs loans for ships, and trains the subsequent technology of mariners to function and preserve vessels. Vessels moved 42 % of the worth and 71 % of the burden of U.S. worldwide commerce in 2018, and whereas they’re by far probably the most environment friendly mode of cargo transportation, ships and their help infrastructure can have dramatic impacts on ocean ecosystem well being by means of ocean air pollution, ocean noise, GHG emissions, and marine mammal strikes.

The delivery business’s dimension, operational flexibility, and entry to capital creates quite a few alternatives for main, near-term emission reductions. Based on a examine from the Worldwide Transport Discussion board (ITF), it might be doable to chop international delivery emissions by greater than 90 % beneath projected emissions by 2035 by means of a mixture of ship design, operational efficiencies, and low-carbon fuels. This consists of constructing ships with light-weight supplies, extra slender designs, and higher propulsion; decreasing working speeds and lowering wait occasions at ports; and utilizing superior biofuels, methanol, ammonia, or hydrogen.

To enhance local weather mitigation within the maritime sector, Congress ought to take the next actions:

  • Urge the Biden administration to encourage the Worldwide Maritime Group to implement the suggestions of the ITF examine and help the administration’s purpose of reaching net-zero emissions from worldwide delivery by 2050.
  • Prioritize emission reductions and zero-emission vessels in federally backed loans beneath MARAD’s Title XI mortgage program.
  • Direct MARAD’s Port Infrastructure Growth Program to prioritize tasks that scale back emissions, together with help for shore energy to scale back vessel emissions at berth, and enhance port infrastructure resilience to pure hazards.
  • Totally fund the Maritime Atmosphere and Know-how Help (META) program at $10 million yearly to analysis essential applied sciences similar to low-emission vessels and diminished impacts to marine mammals.
  • Help mitigation in ports and intermodal services that the majority have an effect on port-side communities, as modeled in Rep. Nanette Barragán’s (D-CA) Local weather Good Ports Act.
  • Set up a pier go site visitors mitigation charge as an incentive to shift some container motion to nighttime hours with the intention to relieve site visitors congestion, as truck idling throughout day hours causes vital air air pollution in harborside communities; create extra standards to fund electrification of rail and truck transport; advance freight transport effectivity; and enhance neighborhood resiliency by means of the Port Infrastructure Growth Program.

The Federal Maritime Fee (FMC), in the meantime, regulates worldwide maritime commerce for the good thing about U.S. exporters, importers, and the U.S. shopper. It ensures U.S. fleet competitors in worldwide markets by monitoring unfair or misleading practices. With a view to assure aggressive and environment friendly ocean transportation, the FMC ought to be sure that U.S. carriers complying with Worldwide Maritime Group emission-reduction and environmental requirements usually are not undercut by overseas fleets which are out of compliance. Congress also needs to contemplate increasing the FMC’s authorities to require carriers and marine terminal operators to supply data on their insurance policies and practices associated to emission-reduction and marine mammal laws. Furthermore, it ought to fund extra investigative workers on the FMC to hold out this scope of labor.

Safety of the Arctic and dwelling marine assets

The U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), housed inside the U.S. Division of Homeland Safety (DHS), is the nation’s maritime regulation enforcement company. The USCG is tasked with 11 statutory missions, together with marine security, regulation enforcement, and the safety of dwelling marine assets. The breadth of the USCG’s mission usually leaves its assets stretched skinny, so extra coordination and assets may enhance its potential to guard dwelling marine assets and implement maritime laws.

To assist defend these assets, Congress ought to take the next actions:

  • Direct the USCG and the Nationwide Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to provide a joint technique to deal with the affect of shifting shares on the USCG’s potential to execute its dwelling marine assets mission. This technique also needs to challenge the fleet allocation to completely different districts and plan for vital coaching.
  • Assist the USCG defend Arctic assets by amending the Act to Forestall Air pollution from Ships to restrict the noise stage of propulsion applied sciences able to masking marine mammal communication, prohibit entry to cruise vessels, and require stringent gray water and ballast water administration laws developed particularly for Arctic ecosystems.
  • Ban the usage of heavy gasoline oils and any emission of black carbon within the Arctic, whereas additionally contemplating the impacts of localized emissions on ice cowl and regional group well being within the Port Entry Route Research.
  • Direct the USCG, in partnership with NOAA, to develop laws that encourage the adoption of deserted and discarded fishing gear, often called ghost gear, supply discount and at-sea waste minimization measures to the utmost extent practicable.

In the latest Nationwide Protection Authorization Act (NDAA), the USCG was licensed to report, plan, and implement a program to mitigate the impacts of vessel noise on the Southern Resident orca pod, with out appropriated funds. The USCG is required to make suggestions for appropriations by June 30, 2021, and with the intention to finest defend endangered marine mammals, congressional appropriations ought to meet or exceed the USCG’s request within the fiscal yr 2022 NDAA. If funded and given an opportunity to achieve success, this program may act as a mannequin for vessel noise mitigation in different regional endangered marine mammal territories within the U.S. unique financial zone.

Coastal infrastructure

For greater than 100 years, the Military Corps of Engineers has altered coastal environments with immense penalties for marine ecosystems. Nevertheless, the corps additionally has every day alternatives to sequester carbon and enhance habitat whereas additionally defending communities. Infrastructure resilience, achieved by means of ecologically constant, low-emission, and nature-based design on the watershed scale, have to be the brand new customary for corps tasks.

Congress already acknowledges the worth of Military Corps of Engineers investments in inexperienced infrastructure. For instance, the 2020 Water Assets Growth Act requires the corps to incorporate extra consideration of environmental and social objectives of their challenge assessments; limits state and native bills for pure and nature-based challenge options; and works to restrict the unfold of invasive species.

Nevertheless, the corps stays way more invested in ecosystem alteration than in ecosystem restoration and resilience. To deal with this, Congress ought to require corps design requirements to reinforce, quite than disrupt, ecosystem well being in all tasks. The corps’ Engineering With Nature: An Atlas has documented dozens of examples of corps pilot tasks that “leverage pure methods and processes by means of built-in water assets administration … [to] develop extra sustainable options and methods,” from utilizing oyster reefs for shoreline stabilization to adjusting lock and dam outflow to extra intently resemble pure riverine circulation.

To help the corps in restoring coastal environments, Congress ought to take the next actions:

  • Direct the corps to prioritize constant water trade, microhabitat manufacturing, and ecosystem-specific steering with the assistance of the Engineering With Nature program throughout the company.
  • Double funding for interdisciplinary Silver Jacket groups to assist native communities scale back their flood danger, with an emphasis on nonstructural approaches with a mandate to supply technical help to regional groups.
  • Present a minimum of $400 million in appropriations to the Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration program to revive aquatic habitat the place the aquatic ecosystem construction, perform, and processes have been degraded.

Generate financial prosperity

Because the local weather warms, sea ranges will rise, coastal flooding will enhance, and excessive occasions similar to hurricanes and storm surges will turn into extra extreme. As a result of almost 40 % of Individuals stay in a coastal county, failing to organize for the results of local weather change will put lives, property, and financial exercise in danger. The investments detailed on this part immediately defend infrastructure and improve ecosystem resilience, thus serving to to safe the roles that depend on each.

Transportation infrastructure

DOT’s Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Federal Freeway Administration (FHWA), and Amtrak ought to all contemplate how you can relocate or adapt their tasks to make sure resilience from sea stage rise and extreme storms in addition to to enhance coastal conservation and environmental justice outcomes.

Mitigating the impacts of sea stage rise is essential to the reliability of the nation’s more and more busy air journey system. 13 of the nation’s 47 largest airports have a minimum of one main runway weak to average storm surge, and plenty of are positioned in low-lying wetlands. With a view to handle the dangers that local weather change poses to air journey infrastructure, Congress ought to:

  • Direct the FAA to require Airport Enchancment Program (AIP) grant recipients to leverage the Airport Sustainability Planning program. This could require airports to develop local weather resilience methods for services at or beneath sea stage, whereas additionally permitting AIP funds for use for rehabilitation of impacts on coastal ecosystems.
  • Revise the Voluntary Airport Low Emission and the Zero Emissions Automobile and Infrastructure Pilot packages to incorporate nature-based infrastructure and blue carbon ecosystem restoration as eligible initiatives to partially mitigate airport facility emissions.
  • Elevate the gathering stage for the Passenger Facility Cost Program for emission-reduction and resilience tasks.

The FHWA is liable for distributing funds to state departments of transportation, making certain that building meets federal requirements, and offering direct design and building companies. With an estimated 60,000 miles of coastal highways in america weak to coastal erosion and storm overwash, freeway floor space has a major affect on coastal ecosystems—each when it comes to immediately constructing on coastal habitat and not directly affecting it by means of runoff air pollution. For instance, in Washington state’s Puget Sound, untreated freeway runoff was discovered to be universally deadly to grownup coho salmon, however nature-based stormwater remedy infrastructure diminished mortality whereas bettering native water high quality. The U.S. Home of Representatives’ 2020 Transferring Ahead Act included preliminary steps to deal with freeway flooding, present wildlife corridors for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and spend money on stormwater finest administration practices, all of which must be reintroduced.

Nevertheless, the FHWA can do extra to guard salmon and different watershed-dependent species. Whereas the FHWA at present funds analysis into highway-generated air pollution, Congress also needs to:

  • Authorize the FHWA to fund nature-based runoff administration tasks. Along with bettering help for enhanced runoff practices, the FHWA ought to improve its help for the Nationwide Cooperative Freeway Analysis Program to additional examine the environmental impacts of freeway runoff and design enhancements for the federal freeway system to mitigate these impacts, particularly close to our bodies of water and wetlands.
  • Direct the FHWA’s Ferry Boat Discretionary Program to prioritize packages that electrify ferries and transit connections, scale back marine noise, and undertake planning for harbor tasks that avert interactions with marine mammals.

Lastly, Amtrak ought to proceed its essential low-emission transportation service system in busy corridors whereas planning for sea stage rise and different local weather change impacts. With massive swaths of Amtrak’s rail system susceptible to everlasting inundation—and no complete vulnerability evaluation to talk of—Congress ought to direct Amtrak to create a complete technique for its coastal tracks, together with mitigation and adaptation priorities for future routes.

Worldwide water useful resource administration

The St. Lawrence Seaway Growth Corp. (SLSDC) and the Worldwide Boundary and Water Fee (IBWC) are unbiased companies that handle transboundary watersheds. The SLSDC manages the networks of locks and maritime infrastructure that join the Nice Lakes and jap canals to facilitate maritime freight. The IBWC oversees the allocation of freshwater assets from rivers and streams throughout the U.S.-Mexico border in addition to water high quality and sanitation challenge improvement. These companies have many alternatives to deal with advanced ocean threats similar to invasive species and nonpoint supply air pollution in addition to impacts on coastal communities.

As local weather change exacerbates erosion, runoff, and groundwater contamination, nature-based options and adaptive coastal buildings can be higher ready than static buildings to adapt to altering water ranges and wind situations. Accordingly, Congress ought to direct the SLSDC to take the next actions:

  • Incentivize the substitute of hardened shore infrastructure, similar to seawalls, with nature-based mitigation.
  • Create a mitigation fund from current company charges and tolls to deal with invasive species and coastal administration.
  • Seek the advice of with tribes to discover how you can enhance tribal illustration on the SLSDC advisory board, similar to by funding a tribal affairs coordinator within the Nice Lakes Regional Workplace.

In southern California, sanitation shortcomings have despatched hundreds of thousands of gallons of uncooked sewage flowing into the Tijuana River and throughout the U.S.-Mexico border, closing public seashores and posing public and environmental well being dangers. To deal with this drawback, Congress ought to mandate that the IBWC take the next actions:

  • Produce a strategic local weather resilience plan.
  • Set up a everlasting water high quality monitoring program, as advisable by the Binational Water High quality Examine, that leverages citizen science work from either side of the border to deal with water high quality impacts on weak coastal communities.
  • Totally fund the Environmental Safety Company’s (EPA) U.S.-Mexico Border Water Infrastructure Grant Program to reinforce the sanitation assets of the U.S.-Mexico border.

Catastrophe mitigation

The Federal Emergency Administration Company (FEMA) at DHS is the lead company liable for responding to disasters similar to hurricanes and floods and for serving to individuals to get well within the aftermath of those occasions. Because the local weather modifications and sea ranges proceed to rise, catastrophe administration technique can be more and more predicated on pre-disaster mitigation and adaptation planning. Twenty-three years of federally funded mitigation grant knowledge display that any such mitigation funding can save the nation $6 in future catastrophe prices for each $1 spent on hazard mitigation.

Ocean assets that help key fisheries and tourism assets may require catastrophe help; for instance, coral reefs could be buried beneath particles after hurricanes. As such, FEMA ought to create a selected program for island territories to guard culturally and environmentally vital ecosystems that present safety from pure hazards.

To assist put together for future disasters, Congress ought to take the next actions:

  • Applicable extra funds to FEMA’s Constructing Resilient Infrastructure and Communities program, which funds mitigation tasks to reduce the affect of disasters on communities throughout america. Particularly, Congress ought to waive cost-sharing necessities for communities of coloration, low-income communities, and tribal communities that face disproportionate dangers from local weather change and spend money on nature-based options to flooding and different coastal hazards. FEMA also needs to present technical help assets for future candidates to the company’s Hazard Mitigation Grants program.
  • Enable for FEMA grants to pay for the relocation and adaptive redesign of essential infrastructure, similar to colleges, hospitals, stormwater remedy services, and transportation hubs. For areas the place flooding is just too frequent to allow rebuilding, FEMA ought to present grants to create pure areas that present resilience advantages, coastal entry, and recreation alternatives.
  • Make coral restoration and different blue carbon mitigation tasks eligible for 100 % Hazard Mitigation Grants reimbursement and set up a program for long-term nature-based mitigation of GHG emissions whereas offering coastal protection.
  • Develop response plans upfront of disasters to shortly get well and restore pure belongings, similar to coral reefs broken in main disasters, with associate companies similar to NOAA and the U.S. Division of Inside by means of the Pure and Cultural Assets Restoration Help Perform.

Advance inclusive and equitable improvement

People who find themselves already weak, together with low-income people and communities of coloration, bear a disproportionate share of local weather change impacts. Whereas fairness must be central to all local weather and infrastructure actions, the particular investments on this part are supposed to acknowledge that the safety of individuals and communities most weak to local weather impacts should go hand in hand with defending the surroundings.

Waterway restoration

The EPA helps coastal remediation and restoration by means of water high quality grants and direct help for the coastal communities who bear the brunt of pure and industrial hazards. These investments can support communities in overcoming a long time of air pollution, exploitation, and, most lately, a pandemic.

These EPA packages may help scale back localized emissions that hurt weak communities and coastal ecosystems, whereas revitalizing wholesome and associable city waters. These impacts can profit native companies and improve instructional, leisure, social, and employment alternatives. To assist the company present help for under-resourced communities and to revive mitigation and adaptation packages minimize by the earlier administration and deprioritized through the pandemic, Congress ought to take the next actions:

  • Enhance funding to the City Waters Small Grants program to help nature entry in underserved communities and remediate impacts to city watersheds.
  • Make sure that a minimum of 25 % of future pilot tasks for the EPA Ports Initiative’s Group-Port Collaboration are in nonattainment areas—these thought-about to have air high quality that doesn’t meet the Nationwide Ambient Air High quality Requirements as outlined within the Clear Air Act Amendments—and embody choices to reinforce coastal entry and workforce improvement the place acceptable. This program facilitates efficient communication and engagement between the port business, communities, and different port stakeholders.

Seize of ocean-climate advantages upstream

Based within the wake of the Mud Bowl, the U.S. Division of Agriculture’s Pure Assets Conservation Service facilitates small grants and teaching programs in shut partnership with farmers and ranchers, native and state governments, and different federal companies, with the intention to preserve wholesome and productive working agricultural infrastructure and landscapes. Pure Assets Conservation Service packages handle agricultural infrastructure and panorama planning, together with large-scale manipulation of levees and farmland. Thus, their watershed packages fall beneath the jurisdiction of the Senate Committee on Atmosphere and Public Works and the Home Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure. Industrial agricultural practices have substantial impacts on the well being of the ocean and Nice Lakes, since runoff facilitates dangerous algae blooms and contributes to the Gulf of Mexico Lifeless Zone. Congress ought to spend money on sustainable administration alternate options for farmers throughout america that help runoff mitigation and long-term ocean and Nice Lakes well being.

To scale back agricultural air pollution that impacts ocean, coastal, and fisheries well being, Congress ought to take the next actions:

  • Totally fund the Agricultural Conservation and the Emergency Watershed Safety Floodplain Easement packages.
  • Make sure that the nationwide Watershed and Flood Prevention Operations Program is totally funded to help state branches; direct the state branches to tell farmers and grant recipients of the ocean well being impacts of their work; and acceptable extra funding to help schooling on ocean impacts from agricultural exercise.
  • Specify that small- and mid-scale farmers’ agricultural runoff linked to dangerous algal blooms and hypoxia downstream is appropriate justification for voluntary land acquisition or easement eligibility beneath the Agricultural Conservation program.

Equitable coastal transportation

More and more dense cities function essential hubs for maritime commerce and intermodal transportation networks, whereas additionally containing necessary coastal assets. But traditionally, there was little public transit connectivity between dense city areas and the coastal zone. A 2016 survey indicated that solely 3.four % of beachgoers took public transit, and a separate ballot discovered {that a} majority of potential beachgoers, particularly individuals of coloration, cited restricted public transit as a major barrier in accessing coastal areas.

Communities of coloration and low-income communities are extra possible than white, moderate-income, or high-income communities to stay in nature-deprived areas. These communities each bear the burden of nature destruction and have much less entry to the advantages of nature, together with air and water purification; local weather change mitigation; biodiversity and illness management; and alternatives for leisure, recreation, and improved psychological well being. Selling extra equitable entry to nature may scale back these disproportionate impacts on communities of coloration and economically deprived communities whereas addressing legacies of racism and injustice in pure useful resource coverage.

Congress ought to direct and fund the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) to conduct pilot research on how you can facilitate entry to the coast and different pure areas. These pilots ought to handle three core issues of transportation-related coastal entry:

  1. Native entry in coastal metropolitan areas—similar to San Diego and New York Metropolis—the place transit exists however native entry to coastal recreation is proscribed by the extent of transit, price, or parking. Pilots ought to have a look at how you can finest prolong current city networks to facilitate entry to the coasts.
  2. Regional entry the place coastal leisure alternatives are a couple of hours away by automotive or bus—such because the larger Washington, D.C., area. Pilots ought to contemplate if frequent over-the-road coach-style service, together with companies supplied by a non-public third-party operator, would enhance entry to the coasts.
  3. Using various transportation choices to enhance first mile/final mile coastal entry.

All pilot packages also needs to plan and price range for advertising and marketing and outreach to make sure that potential prospects know concerning the choices supplied by this system.

As well as, Congress ought to require the FTA Workplace of Environmental Applications’ Coordinating Council on Entry and Mobility to deal with entry to nature in its annual experiences to Congress.

Conclusion

Local weather change is not a distant risk; it’s right here, and it’s harming individuals and communities proper now. In 2020, there have been 22 excessive climate occasions in america that precipitated injury exceeding $1 billion every—a brand new annual report that shattered the earlier report of 16 occasions that occurred in each 2011 and 2017. Consultants with high-level authorities expertise have argued {that a} whole-of-government local weather response is important to mitigate the lack of life, property, and a long time of taxpayer funding.

The excellent news is that after 4 years of transferring within the mistaken route, america is lastly poised to take daring motion on infrastructure and local weather. As the brand new administration and Congress put together to pursue an formidable infrastructure plan that may additionally deal with the local weather disaster, they need to look to the ocean for options.

Concerning the authors

Rennie Meyers is a former congressional Sea Grant fellow for the U.S. Home of Representatives Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. She makes a speciality of marine transportation and its affect on communities and the surroundings. This report doesn’t replicate the views or endorsements of her employers.

Alexandra Carter is the deputy director for Ocean Coverage on the Middle for American Progress.

Miriam Goldstein is the managing director for Power and Atmosphere and the director of Ocean Coverage on the Middle.

Acknowledgements

The authors want to thank their Middle for American Progress colleagues Trevor Higgins, Kevin DeGood, Steve Bonitatibus, and Shanée Simhoni for his or her useful feedback. Jean Flemma, director of the Ocean Protection Initiative and co-founder of the City Ocean Lab additionally supplied considerate suggestions that improved this report. 

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