One yr of Covid-19: Information and analyses

THE world has been in a steady state of emergency for greater than a yr. Many people are engaged in heated debate about its justification and goals.

Within the following article, I’ve compiled and analysed the important medico-epidemiological information.

The info are undisputed and indeniable. The analyses are open for dialogue.

1. Medical signs


The signs brought on by the SARS-CoV-2 virus are just like these brought on by different pathogens of human respiratory infections, i.e. they’re non-specific (see beneath).

Nearly all of individuals contaminated with the virus both develop no signs in any respect, or solely delicate ones from which they absolutely recuperate.

Extreme and probably deadly varieties primarily have an effect on older people with pre-existing circumstances.

In accordance with the World Well being Organisation,

 the most typical signs of Covid-19 are :

·         Fever

·         Dry cough

·         Fatigue

Different signs which might be much less frequent and should have an effect on some sufferers embody:

·         lack of style or scent,

·         nasal congestion,

·         conjunctivitis (also referred to as purple eyes),

·         sore throat,

·         headache,

·         muscle or joint ache,

·         various kinds of pores and skin rash,

·         nausea or vomiting,

·         diarrhoea,

·         chills or dizziness.

Signs of extreme Covid‐19 illness embody:

·         shortness of breath,

·         lack of urge for food,

·         confusion,

·         persistent ache or stress within the chest,

·         excessive temperature (above 38 °c).


Human beings have needed to take care of a lot of repeatedly mutating respiratory viruses since time immemorial; the most effective identified and most typical varieties embody rhino-, adeno-, corona-, influenza and parainfluenza viruses. As toddlers with completely runny noses, we develop a primary immunity which is usually put to the check in maturity, particularly throughout the frequent chilly season. It undergoes additional ‘coaching’ when it’s uncovered to newly mutated types of these viruses.

Extreme illness progressions – typically viral pneumonias – have been described for nearly all identified kinds of viruses; they primarily have an effect on older individuals who have pre-existing well being circumstances and a weakened immune system. In such sufferers – particularly when they’re bedridden – pneumonia can also be quite common.

What, then, makes SARS-CoV-2 so peculiar?

It might be that this virus causes extreme types of the illness significantly extra steadily than its beforehand identified counterparts. For many kinds of respiratory viruses, we now have by no means tried particularly to find out this frequency; it’s subsequently tough to look at this speculation. Nevertheless, when it comes to affected person traits (particularly age and pre-existing circumstances), extreme Covid-19 isn’t any totally different from the extreme illness progressions brought on by different respiratory viruses; this could are inclined to recommend that it’s one more, unexceptional consultant of that very same class. For the one kind the place we do have affordable numbers, the influenza virus, latest scientific evaluation signifies that Covid-19 is definitely not dissimilar.

It might be that extreme Covid-19 is a particular, beforehand unknown medical syndrome; that is claimed by some medical doctors and clinicians. Even they don’t set up the prognosis on medical grounds (signs) solely, as affirmation (or refutation) by laboratory testing is all the time carried out. Related signs and X-ray or CT photographs had beforehand been described for different respiratory viruses too; in on a regular basis medical apply, nonetheless, the precise causative agent of a viral pneumonia had rarely been decided.

It might be that some individuals undergo from the illness brought on by this explicit virus for prolonged durations, or are left with particular sequelae (‘Lengthy Covid’). Nevertheless, late results have been described for different respiratory viruses as properly, the influenza viruses particularly. Moreover, many a former Covid-19 affected person who doesn’t really feel absolutely recovered or who falls sufferer to another illness will now conceivably be tempted responsible this on the SARS-CoV-2 virus. It might even be potential that the mere data of getting had Covid-19 – or just having examined optimistic for SARS-CoV-2 – could make some individuals really feel unwell. Be that as it might, there may be as but no scientifically legitimate research which might exhibit any particular long-term penalties of an infection with this virus.

It might be that this virus is especially ‘contagious’, attributable to some explicit biochemical and/or physiological properties. Right here, too, we lack significant comparative information; respiratory an infection chains are typically tough to hint. Members of the family dwelling in shut quarters with sick people can stay asymptomatic and test-negative, nonetheless, and infections in an open-air setting are uncommon. Thus, we appear reasonably to be coping with the everyday an infection dynamic of a typical chilly virus, and never with an epidemic which spreads like wildfire.

It might be that this coronavirus has mutated so far-off from the viruses already identified to our immune system that we’re, so to talk, completely at its mercy. If this had been true, nonetheless, the excessive prevalence of asymptomatic infections may merely not be defined. This proves that many individuals have already got primary immunity (or cross-immunity with different coronaviruses), simply as most of us have some primary immunity to most of these always mutating respiratory viruses.

It might be, although, that the one really distinctive attribute of this virus is the truth that mankind is chasing it with particular checks, declaring everybody who checks optimistic as an ‘contaminated particular person’ or a ‘case’. It might be that a lot of disturbing photographs and media experiences have despatched most of us – together with nursing employees, medical doctors and scientists, politicians and leaders – into a wholly irrational panic and hysteria. It might be that we are able to theoretically repeat the identical process yearly (each winter – we’re coping with frequent chilly viruses, in spite of everything), and with nearly any freshly mutated rhinovirus, adenovirus, coronavirus, influenza or parainfluenza virus – if we care to hint one in every of them with particular testing.

2. Mortality


The age distribution of ‘corona deaths’ (individuals who have died ‘of or with Covid-19’) is just like that of the overall inhabitants; in all European international locations, the common age of loss of life is 80 and over.

In 2020, some international locations noticed relative undermortality of as much as 5 per cent, as in comparison with the imply of the earlier 5 years, whereas others skilled a relative extra mortality of between 1 per cent and barely over 10 per cent.


The truth that the age distribution of those that died ‘of and with’ corona carefully follows that of all-cause mortality within the common inhabitants raises the speculation that this explicit cohort (group of individuals) is a part of that ordinary, inevitable inhabitants mortality.

All of us should die, and on common we die at our common age of loss of life. No authorities on the earth can stop this from occurring.

Most of us want to keep away from elements which may shorten our lives; we subsequently must attempt to discover out what these elements are. That common tobacco consumption falls into this class is one thing which we are able to now make sure of, for instance. Carrying purple socks appears a extremely unlikely issue at first sight, however maybe it’s one thing we must always test, simply to verify. With the intention to decide whether or not carrying purple socks is extra harmful than carrying socks of a special color, we must have a look at the age distribution within the cohort of those that died whereas carrying purple socks. If we discover a distinction from the overall inhabitants – if, particularly, the common is decrease than that of those that had been carrying socks of a special color – we’d set up the speculation that it’s higher to keep away from carrying purple socks (a speculation which will surely require additional investigation). If – as we’d count on – the age distribution had been the identical, and if we may repeat this end in quite a few cohorts – in several international locations, for instance – we’d conclude that carrying purple socks has no affect on mortality, in different phrases that it’s a so-called random variable.

This retrospective methodology is mostly step one which epidemiologists use with the intention to look at sure variables, reminiscent of dwelling habits and circumstances, pathogens and medical diagnoses, and to find out their potential affect on inhabitants mortality.

Now, it’s in fact true that having reached a sure age, one has a remaining life expectancy which is larger than at delivery: in Germany, for instance, chances are you’ll count on to reside 16 extra years on the age of 70, 9 extra at 80, Four extra at 90, and a couple of extra at 100. Life insurance coverage firms base their premiums on this type of calculation. In a lot of not too long ago printed educational articles, this remaining life expectancy of the dwelling has merely been transferred to those that had died ‘of and with corona’, the ensuing declare being that these individuals had misplaced round 12 years of their lives. In different phrases, they’d have lived, on common, to properly over 90 years if they’d not been struck down by the virus. This declare isn’t actually believable in itself. Furthermore, following this line of reasoning, we may simply as properly exhibit that purple socks (or whichever random variable you care to decide on) had been life-threatening, and demand that the federal government mobilise all potential means with the intention to stop individuals from carrying them.

On the idea of their age distribution and their multimorbidity (the nearly common presence of different severe illnesses), we are able to assume that the cohort of people that died with a optimistic check for SARS-CoV-2 is a part of the conventional and inevitable mortality of the overall inhabitants and can’t considerably alter the whole quantity of that mortality.

The truth that a sure extra mortality is now being reported for some – although not all – international locations for the yr 2020 deserves nearer evaluation; it can not unquestioningly be attributed to the coronavirus. A comparability with the common of earlier years could already be deceptive in international locations with an rising inhabitants and/or progressive ageing, such because the USA, since such elements inevitably result in a steady rise within the variety of deaths.

For many international locations, severe statistical analyses don’t exhibit a major enhance within the variety of deaths for the yr 2020. In any case, any factually demonstrated native extra mortality may simply as properly have been the results of common worry and panic among the many inhabitants (for instance by discouraging these with severe circumstances from in search of well timed medical recommendation) in addition to of failures and disorganisation within the healthcare system and within the therapy of different illnesses – on the very least, this speculation must be examined.     

3.  Analysis – the ‘checks’


The obtainable PCR and antigen checks observe totally different and variable laboratory protocols. Nationwide or worldwide requirements don’t exist.

The checks detect the presence of virus fragments. A optimistic check doesn’t show an infection with reproducing viruses.

All laboratory checks have sure inherent error charges (sensitivity, specificity). These error charges, outlined underneath excellent circumstances, essentially enhance with improper and/or mass utility.

For the primary time in medical historical past, we’re monitoring a particular respiratory an infection pathogen with mass testing within the common inhabitants.


The whole lot hinges on the checks. Given the non-specific medical and epidemiological traits of the SARS-CoV-2 an infection, we’d not have observed a lot of a ‘pandemic’ with out these laboratory diagnostics, even when we had continued to reside our lives usually. 

A mess of viruses always scurry throughout the mucous membranes of our respiratory tract; more often than not our immune system offers with them invisibly, not permitting them to multiply any additional. A brief weakening of our immune defences (e.g. once we catch a ‘chilly’) or a very excessive publicity (consumption of a excessive viral load) could result in an inflammatory physique response which interprets right into a working nostril, a cough, hoarseness, fever and/or a common feeling of being unwell. Which particular virus (or viruses – so-called co-infections, e.g. with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses on the similar time, aren’t unusual) is accountable for these signs had to date by no means been investigated in medical apply, as any such data wouldn’t have had any sensible therapeutic penalties.

For greater than a yr now, we now have been monitoring the presence of fragments of 1 particular respiratory virus with mass laboratory testing, not solely in sick individuals but in addition (and now primarily) in wholesome people, declaring them to be ‘contaminated’ as quickly as any one in every of these checks, following any one in every of many various lab protocols, detects or purports to detect any viral particles on their mucous membranes. Given the identified seasonality of respiratory viruses, it’s not stunning that we’re seeing extra ‘contaminated’ instances, hospitalisations and deaths within the chilly season than in the summertime; this could be no totally different for every other consultant of those pathogens if we cared to check for them.

Completely wholesome persons are being quarantined due to their check outcomes, underneath the belief that they might infect and endanger others. Leaving apart the query of whether or not such an ‘asymptomatic an infection’ with the virus actually exists in any respect (although it ought to be famous right here that each one coercive authorities measures are primarily based on this unproven assumption) the virus is now endemic anyway, that’s to say it’s always circulating – and mutating – within the inhabitants. This at the least the mass testing has demonstrated for sure. Neither the isolation of clinically wholesome individuals, nor every other authorities orders, can alter this truth.

Each hospitalisation, for no matter cause, is accompanied by one or (normally) a number of SARS-CoV-2 checks, and the affected person is said a ‘corona case’ as quickly because the result’s optimistic – generally even with out such a optimistic check. In any case, there are, in lots of international locations, monetary and different incentives for the admission and therapy of ‘corona sufferers’. Finally, all this fairly naturally results in a substantial variety of ‘corona’ loss of life certificates.

In extreme instances of respiratory tract infections, the identification of a particular pathogen – utilizing validated strategies! – could generally be therapeutically related. In any other case, the mass testing as it’s at the moment being practised is medically pointless. It solely creates worry and nervousness within the inhabitants, whereas essentially resulting in the neglect of different, extra necessary considerations within the healthcare system.

4. Remedy


The medical remedy of a symptomatic Covid-19 an infection is in precept an identical to that of every other viral respiratory illness; the precise efficacy of prescription drugs advisable by some consultants (hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, immunoglobulins) is controversial.

Extreme types of an infection resulting in respiratory failure could necessitate oxygen remedy, as with all pneumonias.

The choice of governments to counter this newly mutated coronavirus not solely medically, however socially and politically, was initially primarily based on the need to grant hospitals and intensive care items a couple of weeks to arrange for the anticipated epidemic rush of sufferers – to ‘flatten the curve’.

As a degree of reference for his or her preventive measures, policy-makers and their scientific advisers have over the previous yr used numerous and shifting parameters (R-number, positivity fee, mortality, hospital and intensive care mattress occupancy, case incidence, and so on.) in addition to numerous and shifting ranges of those parameters.


Medical remedy of a symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 an infection is exactly that – symptomatic. The pathogen can’t be eradicated pharmaceutically; antiviral therapies have – at the least as but – not been in a position to clearly show efficacy. Finally, the human physique has to come back to grips with the virus by itself, and within the overwhelming majority of instances it does. All we are able to do is to alleviate the indicators of irritation brought on by this struggle; that is as true of SARS-CoV-2 as it’s of every other respiratory virus.

Within the panic brought on by the photographs and experiences from Wuhan, we most likely overshot the mark in treating severely unwell and fragile individuals with intensive medical interventions reminiscent of synthetic air flow – regrettably violating one of many elementary precepts of medication, specifically primum non nocere (first, do no hurt).

Below the affect of the photographs and information from Wuhan (and subsequently from Bergamo), fuelled by a lot of horrifying epidemiological fashions, the political leaders of our societies opted for preventive measures to comprise the unfold of this explicit respiratory virus to mitigate an anticipated onslaught on our hospitals.

For an entire yr, our healthcare methods have largely been switched into transmission prevention mode. In all places, one encounters protecting fits, Covid corridors, disinfectants, testing stations, quarantine rooms, and so on. But regardless of the substantial extra administrative and organisational burden brought on by all this, the general cost on medical doctors, emergency rooms, hospitals and intensive care items has not considerably elevated – in actual fact, the very reverse has been proven to be the case in a lot of international locations and areas.

One may, one ought to ask which parameters – and underneath what circumstances – are for use to resolve on the unconditional withdrawal of all these preventive, short-term emergency measures? The SARS CoV-2 virus and its mutated and always mutating descendants have been endemic for some time now. There’ll all the time be mutated respiratory viruses, new ones yearly, posing variable ranges of dangers – dangers nonetheless which in all probability will basically stay controllable by medical means alone. We could settle for this as a ample cause to declare a everlasting state of societal emergency?

5.  Governmental, non-pharmaceutical measures


The measures adopted by Western democracies to fight SARS-CoV-2 observe the preliminary instance of the Chinese language dictatorship – not their very own pandemic plans or the unique suggestions of the World Well being Organisation.

Up to now, no authorities has introduced a documented price/profit evaluation of its measures, not to mention been guided by such an evaluation in its decision-making.

A transparent, scientifically accepted proof of the effectiveness of any of the governmental measures doesn’t exist.

It’s indeniable that these measures trigger human and financial hurt.


Allow us to contemplate the panoply of coercive measures imposed on the inhabitants in the middle of final yr’s pandemic, reminiscent of home arrests, bans on work, contact, sports activities and motion, masking necessities, and so on. If these had been medicines that required advertising authorisation, they must show therapeutic efficacy and security, or at the least acceptable side-effect profiles, in relation to confirmed advantages.

Since virtually all these measures had been utilized, for the primary time in world historical past, to the wholesome common inhabitants, they’ve been and proceed to be enforced politically, with out prior proof of efficacy, primarily based on the dogma that interpersonal contact and subsequently the potential change of viruses ought to be averted or lowered to a minimal.

It ought to by now be apparent to everyone that neither the evolution over time in particular person international locations, nor any comparability between international locations the place totally different measures had been utilized, present any impact by any means of presidency intervention on the course of the epidemic, particularly on crucial parameter, mortality. If, as claimed, a whole bunch of hundreds extra individuals had been to fall sufferer to the virus within the absence of robust restrictions, we’d have needed to see this occur in Europe final summer time, and we’d have needed to see this occur over the course of the entire yr in Sweden, in Belarus, in South Korea, in Japan and in Florida, in addition to in a lot of different US states.

The truth is, the very reverse appears to be true: International locations (and durations) with laborious lockdowns have proven and proceed to indicate the very best mortality charges. The virus spreads based on its personal legal guidelines, based on a transparent seasonal rhythm within the temperate European local weather zones – it’s a frequent chilly virus which doesn’t care about authorities tips. Nor will Australia or New Zealand be capable of minimize themselves off from it – and from the remainder of the world – in the long term. What can be the purpose anyway?

Then again, the big harm brought on by the governments’ coercive measures is changing into more and more clear, even when nearly all of the Western inhabitants has but to begin feeling it personally.

World financial progress is being slowed down on a big scale and put into reverse gear. Initially, it’s primarily the poorer international locations which undergo: right here, distress and starvation at the moment are on the rise once more, after being in regular decline over latest years and a long time. A part of the extra trillions of euros or {dollars} that the world may have generated final yr with out authorities restrictions may and would have been spent on saving tens of millions of lives. The polarising debate concerning the dichotomy between saving lives or saving the economic system is totally out of contact with actuality: prosperity and financial exercise are elementary stipulations for efficient healthcare. The wealthy West may have used final yr’s misplaced tax revenues to construct quite a few hospitals and rent extra nursing employees. In growing international locations, our lockdowns and the following diminished financial exercise and commerce result in mass distress and hunger, particularly amongst kids.

Slowly however certainly, investigations are getting underneath option to look at the direct and oblique penalties of presidency worry propaganda and media scaremongering, of pressured home arrests, of social isolation and bans on work and sports activities, of curfews, college absences, anxiety-driven training, obligatory face coverings and different hygiene constraints. It appears extremely unlikely that the side-effect profile of all these coercive measures will traditionally be deemed acceptable.

6. Vaccines


The SARS-CoV-2 vaccines had been developed in document time, with lots of the steps usually required by the regulatory authorities being omitted.

The pivotal medical trials exhibit a preventive efficacy towards frequent chilly signs with a optimistic SARS CoV-2 check and present a pattern – albeit not a statistically important one – in direction of a discount in extreme instances with a optimistic check for SARS CoV-2.

No preventive impact towards mortality (loss of life) has been demonstrated, nor are there apparently any plans to take action.


Vaccination of the entire of humanity is being described by lots of our consultants and politicians as the one potential method for a return to regular life. The (conditional) approval of vaccines developed in lower than a yr was carried out underneath excessive political stress. Given the shortage of the usually required security research (for instance, animal toxicology) and given the extraordinarily temporary interval of medical statement, we are able to solely hope that these merchandise won’t trigger too many severe side-effects. Though it’s by no means potential to rule these out completely for any new drug, the event steps usually required by regulatory authorities are primarily based on medico-historical expertise and have a well-reasoned function.

The ‘emergency approval’ of a brand new medical intervention could maybe generally be justified by its clearly confirmed efficacy and the severity of the illness to be handled. Neither one in every of these elements applies to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, nonetheless.

The extremely publicised efficacy of the merchandise authorised up to now is a statistically important discount in frequent chilly signs with a optimistic check in contrast with placebo (or, within the case of the AstraZeneca vaccine, oddly sufficient, additionally in contrast with a meningitis vaccination).

The truth that these vaccines reach clearly lowering the detectability of SARS-CoV-2 in people affected by fever, cough or hoarseness is definitely an attention-grabbing organic end result. From the affected person’s viewpoint, that is irrelevant: she or he merely desires to have much less fever, cough and hoarseness, it doesn’t matter what is inflicting them. That’s exactly what has not been proven within the medical trials. The articles printed on the earth’s main and, underneath regular circumstances, greatest medical journals (New England Journal of Medication, the Lancet) don’t specify absolutely the numbers of signs that occurred within the comparative teams. Nevertheless, since most of those frequent chilly signs are additionally listed as side-effects after vaccination, and occurred way more steadily within the respective vaccination teams than underneath placebo, in addition to occurring way more steadily than the symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections chosen because the medical endpoint, the conclusion certainly needs to be that individuals within the vaccination group turned unwell considerably extra steadily than these within the placebo group.

Not one of the medical trials was in a position to exhibit a statistically important impact on the prevalence of extreme types of respiratory illness, as they occurred too hardly ever. In any case, the reasoning with respect to the medical endpoint ‘with a optimistic check for SARS-CoV-2’ would apply once more: sufferers don’t care whether or not their shortness of breath, their hospitalisation or their loss of life is related to a optimistic SARS-CoV-2 check or not; they simply don’t want any of this.

The truth is, a very related proof of efficacy of all these vaccines might be supplied solely by means of rigorously performed mortality research (i.e. the comparability of absolutely the loss of life fee between the vaccination and the placebo teams), or, on the very least, by means of a so-called mixed endpoint trial (for instance, hospitalisation and/or loss of life). If it is a lethal virus, if the scenario is really pressing, that is what we’d have (had) to ask the pharmaceutical firms to hold out, and that is what we’d have (had) to ask the regulatory authorities to demand from them.

This isn’t even deliberate, nonetheless – in all probability for excellent causes. Within the medical vaccine research printed up to now, a complete of properly over 100,000 topics had been included, however up to now not a single Covid-19 loss of life has apparently been recorded; within the not but printed trial of the J&J vaccine, a couple of ‘Covid-related’ deaths (single digit quantity) appear to have occurred.

The illness is kind of clearly not severe sufficient for well-designed medical trials conclusively to exhibit any impact on extreme varieties or loss of life.

The vaccines have now largely been rolled out, and claims of efficacy abound, primarily based on observational information. They appear in actual fact to be doing what they demonstrated within the randomised medical trials – lowering the variety of positively examined people (corona ‘instances’).

Their side-effect profiles are being established as we go alongside. Whether or not these vaccines can have any important optimistic impact on inhabitants morbidity and above all mortality stays to be seen. It is perhaps asking slightly an excessive amount of of them to forestall regular inhabitants mortality, however maybe there’ll yield a welcome psychological end result, permitting our societies to re-open (assuming that that is what governments and the ruled individuals need).

7. Freedom and human rights


As of now (April 2021), elementary freedoms and human rights are restricted or suspended for a limiteless interval in nearly all international locations of the world.


Elected and non-elected representatives of the persons are at the moment conducting a – in some instances overtly declared – ‘conflict’ towards a typical chilly virus, forcing their infantilised populations right into a everlasting state of emergency. How and with what sort of consequence this conflict is to be received stays basically open, even when some protagonists are planning and propagating a brand new, totalitarian normality after a ‘nice reset’.

The measures taken by governments to guard a sure ‘at-risk group’ (ostensibly, at the least) are impacting enormously on different teams, certainly on the complete inhabitants. The trendy constitutional state is, in precept, barred from taking such motion; it should not actively hurt harmless individuals in an try to guard others. Even when we had been coping with a very extreme epidemic, with the plague itself: elementary human rights are to not be bent, even when democratic majorities had been to conform to their suspension or abolition.

We’re certainly engaged in a wrestle – a wrestle for freedom and for human dignity. Allow us to hope that the battle can nonetheless be received with info and rational argument.

It is a translation of the unique German article which is republished by variety permission.

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